Lemon Shark: All you need to know!

The lemon shark is better known as Negaprion brevirostris in the scientific community. It is only one of the over 1,000 species of shark you can find across the planet. Because of potentially declining population levels, the lemon shark is officially rated “Near Threatened.”

Characteristics and Appearance

At birth, lemon sharks measure about 20 to 30 inches long. Until they reach adulthood, the pups remain in their nursing grounds with their litter. They can have anywhere from four to seventeen members.

Because lemon sharks are sexually dimorphic, you can tell if a particular shark is female or male simply from its appearance. Male and female lemon sharks are similar in appearance. Still, a minor distinction makes each sex identifiable at a look.

Dimensions: lbs. and in.

In adulthood, female lemon sharks can reach lengths of 94 to 96 inches. Males are often about 90 inches. However, individual lemon sharks can be longer than these averages. For example, some of them can reach almost 120 inches. The average weight ranges from 406 to 551 pounds for both sexes.

Physical Characteristics and Color

Lemon sharks’ skin is olive to yellow-brown, and their underbellies are light yellow. That is whence they earn the name “lemon sharks.” They don’t have any distinguishing features on their skin.

One of the lemon sharks’ most identifying qualities aside from their coloration is their dorsal fins. The first dorsal fin is positioned on the mid-back, and the second is closer to the tail. While the second fin is shorter than the first, they have the same triangular shape.

The lemon shark’s snout is another eye-catching feature. The snout of a lemon shark is narrower than the shark’s mouth because it is rounded at the tip.

The Length of Life and the Number of Offspring

Lemon sharks have an average lifespan of 27 years in the wild, but they have been known to live well into their 30s. They practice polyandry—female lemon sharks take on numerous male partners in their lifetimes. Scientists believe female lemon sharks preserve sperm from their many mates. They also believe they have these mixed sperm compete simultaneously for a position in an egg. Male lemon sharks deposit sperm by biting the front fins of females and then inserting their claspers into the cloacas.

Once a female has conceived a litter, she will gestate for 10 to 12 months before swimming to a shallow nursery ground and birthing her pups live. The puppies will dwell on these grounds for 2 to 3 years or when they turn about 3 feet long. At 12 or 13, kids begin to reach their full potential. Young lemon sharks can and will seek their prey.

A lemon shark’s reproductive cycle is primarily centered around spring and summer. Female otters return to the same nursery grounds each year to give their young a year off between litters.

When lemon sharks mature, they must be introduced to adult waters. However, scientists have no idea how this process works. However, experts know lemon shark pups will linger near their birthing sites for years after leaving the surrounding area.


Lemon sharks live in oceanic seas no deeper than 188 feet. Mangroves, reefs, and docks are all good places to find them. These locations are favorable for female lemon sharks to give birth to their offspring.

Though lemon sharks are predominantly ocean species, they have wandered into freshwater places. An example is river mouths. However, they do not seem to go very far into these waterscapes.

Do Lemon Sharks have a home?

You can locate the lemon shark anywhere along the world’s coasts where there are coastal waters. They are most populous in the Gulf of Mexico, the West Indies, and the Caribbean. The eastern United States, the Mexican peninsula, and the Brazilian coast have sizable populations. On the west coast of Africa, you can even locate them.

Food and Diet

In their natural habitat, lemon sharks hunt by swimming along the bottom of the ocean. As a result, the amount of food they consume in a single meal can vary widely. Also, the amount of time it takes to digest their food differs from animal to animal.

Lemon sharks eat a variety of different things.

Lemon sharks will devour all sorts of sea creatures, including insects. On the other hand, Lemon sharks have a particular fondness for fish and mollusks. Some of their typical targets include:

  • Crabs that are brown in color
  • Catfish
  • Cowfish
  • Croakers
  • Crayfish
  • Eagle rays
  • Guitarfish
  • Porcupinefish
  • Rays

In addition, baby lemon sharks are known to be eaten by prawns and shore crabs. Furthermore, lemon shark adults have been known to consume their own young.

Threats and Predators

Nature does not toy with the lemon shark. Even though they suffer various dangers, they hold a prominent position in the food chain.

Threats from Human Beings

People are a threat to lemon sharks, even though the lemon is not yet considered “Threatened.” Humans respect this species for its gastronomic, medicinal, and research worth. When people go hunting in these places too far, we risk overhunting the lemon shark.

Because of human activities, lemon sharks are also being harmed indirectly. For instance, mangroves are a huge lemon shark habitat being endangered by human agricultural and industrial growth. Lemon sharks can also become entangled in nets used by commercial fishermen, harming their survival chances. This tragic fact remains even if these fisheries are not purposefully killing lemon sharks.

Climate Change and Global Warming

Despite their dominance in the water, Lemon sharks are not immune to the effects of climate change. Specifically, they confront major issues when it comes to habitat.

Coral reefs are one of the lemon sharks’ preferred habitats for living and mating. They are being bleached and destroyed by climate change. As coral reefs disappear, so do lemon sharks. This fact means they also lose an area to breed.

Climate change also threatens to harm mangroves. Lemon shark populations could be endangered if this tendency continues, just as it has been with the degradation of reefs.

There are no known predators of the adult lemon shark. Some other shark species will hunt on newborn lemon sharks, but those same species will not pursue adults.

Because of the cannibalization of its young, one of the lemon shark’s greatest predators may be itself.

Threats from Other Sources

Lemon sharks serve as hosts for various parasites, including flukes and tapeworms. These parasites do not constitute a serious threat to lemon sharks as a species. Individuals whom parasitic species have chosen as hosts are in danger of damage or worse.

Conservation Status

The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission forbids the taking of lemon sharks in Florida’s waterways by any means. Any lemon shark that gets onto a hook needs to be released promptly. It’s either by removing the hook from the shark or by cutting the shark free. Whichever method would release the shark quickest is used. This rule was put into effect in 2010 in Florida.

The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) lists the lemon shark as “Near Threatened.” They cite falling population levels as a possible hazard to the species’ future.

Fun Facts About Lemon Sharks

People throughout the world have named the lemon shark for its unique skin. Intriguingly, the German language has two terms for the lemon shark: “zitronenhai” (“lemon shark”) and “kurznasenhai” (“short-snout shark”). The lemon shark is also called the “Tiburon Galano” (literally, “gallant shark”) in Spanish.

Although lemon sharks are deadly predators among aquatic life, they offer virtually little threat to people. As of 2011, researchers had documented only 10 incidents of lemon sharks attacking humans. None of these cases were deadly.

Lemon sharks have a symbiotic association with connected remoras. They are commonly known as sharksuckers or otherwise known as sharksuckers. During feeding, the remoras cling to the lemon sharks’ bodies and clean up the waste they leave behind. On the other hand, Lemon sharks benefit from a deep skin cleansing that keeps them healthy and free of illness.

While mother lemon sharks handle most parenting, father sharks will get involved after the young are born.

Lemon sharks tend to travel and live alone.

They are active most of all in the early morning and evening.


U.S. Navy-Chartered Ordnance Barge Run Aground in Florida

U.S. Navy’s Military Sealift Command charter tug and barge got into trouble off Florida on Thursday while en route to the Navy’s Atlantic Underwater Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC). According to the Coast Guard, the barge is full of ordnance, fuel, and other supplies needed for Navy operations.

A mayday call was sent out by the crew of the tug Sea Eagle on Thursday at 20:45 local time, reporting that they were in trouble and beginning to take on water.

In Fort Lauderdale, about three miles east of Hillsboro Beach, the Coast Guard and CBP sent response boats to the tug’s location. Three people were rescued from the barge by CBP rescue crews when they arrived on the scene. The Sea Eagle’s captain, who had stayed behind with the tug, was rescued by Station Fort Lauderdale’s crew. Station Fort Lauderdale’s vessel reunited the four separated members of the crew, and they were safely delivered to shore. There were no reported incidents of any kind of injury.

The tug and barge have washed ashore within yards of the beach, according to video provided by the Coast Guard. The barge can be seen in the breaking waves of the surf zone.

Approximately 10,000 gallons of diesel fuel are said to be on board the tugboat. This vessel is owned and operated by Northcliffe Ocean Shipping & Trading, which is working with a salvage company to remove the tug and barge and safely transport them to a nearby port.

A 1,000-yard security perimeter has been established around the site because of the cargo’s sensitivity. In the vicinity of the stranding, local sheriff’s deputies are in charge of policing beach access from the shore.

For a routine supply mission to the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center in the Bahamas, the U.S. Navy Military Sealift Command rented a barge and a tug boat. Ordnance, fuel, and other supplies were on board the barge. U.S. Navy EOD Mobile Unit Six (EODMU 6) has been assigned the task of removing all explosives and ordnance from the barge. The Coast Guard says the area’s residents aren’t in danger, but asks that everyone else, including civilians and mariners, stay away.

The investigation into the grounding is ongoing.


Best Algae Eaters For A Balanced Aquarium in 2022

The term “algae” refers to a diverse group of organisms that can produce oxygen through photosynthesis. It’s the process of harvesting light energy from the sun to generate carbohydrates. These creatures aren’t always connected to each other. Certain characteristics link them together while separating them from the other main group of photosynthetic creatures, terrestrial plants.

Nothing is more aggravating than waking up to see your fish tank completely coated in a coating of green. Algae is a prevalent problem in freshwater aquariums, but it is a very straightforward issue to resolve. You might be startled to hear that most tap water contains significant phosphorus. If you have an abundance of these nutrients in your tank, you’re more likely to see fast algae development. Having real plants in the tank can sometimes assist with this since they fight for the same nutrients as the algae.

Many aquarium enthusiasts believe that the presence of algae in their tank indicates that the tank is unclean. While algae might make your tank appear unclean, it is more likely to grow in a clean environment. The more thoroughly you clean your tank, the more potential algae growth will appear.

It’s an algae eater, also known as an algivore. This term is used to describe a variety of bottom-dwelling or algae-eating organisms that consume algae. Algae eaters have long been a staple of the aquarium hobby, helping maintain the natural ecology we attempt to recreate.

They are wonderful additions to your aquatic family. It’s because of their algae-removal abilities and unique appearance and behaviors.

Types of algae 

  • Blue-Green Algae

These are often known as cyanobacteria. They grow in unclean substrates, filters, and tanks with inadequate circulation. It can also thrive in environments with low nitrate levels and high amounts of other nutrients.

  • Green Spot Algae 

This alga leaves spots on your tank’s glass and plant foliage. It thrives in tanks with low CO2 and phosphate levels and tanks with lights left on for too long throughout the day.

  • Staghorn Algae

This alga produces antler-like filaments that range in color from dark green to grey to black. Staghorn algae prefer filthy substrates and low C02 levels.

  • Brown Algae

Brown algae flourish in low light and nitrate- and phosphate-rich water and are more likely to form in new tanks. It usually appears as fluffy patches on the substrate and rocks. You can also find it on the glass and aquarium ornaments.

  • Green Hair Algae  

This species of algae produce wispy, hair-like growths that can grow to be a foot long or more. Hair develops best in high-light environments with low CO2 and nitrate levels.

  • Brush Algae  

Brush algae is a type of algae that grows on the leaves of slow-growing plants and inside tank filters due to high kH or low CO2 levels.

  • Green Water

This is an indication of too much light or too much ammonia. Still, it might also signify too many other nutrients or overfeeding. 

Types of Algae eaters 

  • Freshwater 
  • Saltwater 

13 algae eaters for freshwater tanks

  • Amano Shrimp 

As long as the common laws of the fish count are maintained, Amano Shrimp may be kept in tanks of practically any size. Like any other living entity in a tank, Amano Shrimp creates waste and taxes the ecosystem. Amano Shrimp is like a setting with many live aquarium plants because it gives them exciting places to climb. They also like swimming from plant to plant, searching for new areas to investigate or hide.

  • Reticulated Hillstream Loach

The Hillstream Loach is a fascinating little fish that thrives on minute crustaceans and larvae (aufwuchs) found in algae. This loach is timid and won’t show up in your home aquarium very often. They are incredible tiny fish in that they require a lot of oxygen in their aquarium to thrive. Because Hillstream Loaches consume algae, the tank in which they should be placed should be well established. A fresh tank does not appear to have any algae immediately away. They should be fed algal wafers, Mysis shrimp, or blood worms of high grade.

  • Nerite snails 

Nerita species can be found in tropical seas in the intermediate and higher intertidal zones worldwide. They are herbivores who live in groups.

The thick shell is low-spired and widely oval or globular. It has a silky smooth finish. Spiral ribs or axial sculpturing can be found on the shells. Small pustules might be seen on the callus. The columella’s opening and margin are frequently dentate, with tiny or strong teeth. The calcareous operculum is a thick, granular structure that can be smooth or granular. Thick spiral threads encircle the whorls.

  • Cherry shrimp 

These tiny aquatic rubies are one of the most extensively marketed decorative shrimp species.

They’re tough if the water conditions are kept consistent, and they’ll quickly reproduce in the aquarium. Cherry shrimp are excellent at devouring several varieties of hair algae and leftover fish food. They come in various hues, but the most popular is a bright red. They are friendly with the smaller fish as they don’t eat them. 

  • Octocinulus catfish 

Otocinclus is a freshwater catfish genus belonging to the Loricariidae family. Otocinclus is a genus with 19 species in various sizes and colors. They’re also known as “Otos” or “dwarf suckers.” Most fish are brought to a tank for aesthetic reasons. Still, Otos offer an additional benefit: they are excellent at cleaning algae.

If your tank’s algae are out of control, these fish will perform wonders and graze the algae down rapidly.

  • Siamese algae eater 

For years, siamese algae eater fish have been a go-to option for freshwater aquarists of all skill levels. That trend isn’t going away anytime soon. They’re gregarious and entertaining communal fish that get along with almost any other species in your aquarium.

They’re also low-maintenance and don’t require much attention to thrive. For many tank owners, this is a big selling point.

  • Florida flag fish 

The Florida Flagfish is a beautiful and tranquil fish found across Florida. This small, mostly tranquil species has a wide range of bright colors. They’re full of color while reproducing. Males are the most colorful, although females are frequently colorful as well. The American Flagfish is a powerful algae eater. It’s one of the few species that will eat bothersome black beard/brush algae. It is a superb show fish in the community and planted aquarium. It may be used to manage algae and consume bug larvae in an outdoor pond.

  • Bristlenose plecostomos

Bristlenose Plecos are herbivores who consume mostly algae. It’s ideal for feeding them algae or spirulina wafers once or twice a day. Granules, flakes, and bloodworms are very tasty.  Just be careful not to overfeed. Whether plecos are well-fed, their coloring is bright. It makes it easy to identify when their nutritional demands are fulfilled. The Bristlenose Pleco will spend part of its time searching for algae and other debris in the substrate, like any catfish. It is a huge benefit because it means a much cleaner tank.

  • Molly fish 

Mollies are one of the most popular aquarium fish and one of the most effective algae eaters. Most people have had one or more of the gentle fish-eating intriguing algae livebearers in their aquarium. Many people mistakenly assume that there is just one variety of molly available in fish stores. Three distinct species are available in the aquarium trade. Only at that moment will all of the mollies available be so hybridized that it will be impossible to tell which species they came from.

  • Rosy Barb & Cherry barb

The pink and cherry barbs are reported to feed mostly on hair-type algae (staghorn or other). These two fish are among the greatest possibilities for treatment if your freshwater aquarium has a major hair algae problem. Both are stunning communal tank fish, but cherries are the nicer of the two.

The cherry barbs will not transcend 2 inches, whereas the rosy barbs can grow up to 6 inches. The cherry barb fish’s small maximum size makes it an ideal algae eater for a 10-gallon freshwater aquarium. This fish will seldom grow to be more than 2 inches (5 cm) long, making it ideal for tiny aquariums.

  • Scribbled Rabbitfish 

The Scribbled Rabbitfish is a popular saltwater fish due to its colorful appearance and algae-eating habits. It eats filamentous brown, green, blue-green, and red microalgae. Rabbitfishes are excellent algae eaters, preferring meaty macroalgae over microalgae. If options are limited, they will likely be useful in suppressing hair algae. It’s particularly bryopsis.

  • Tuxedo Urchin 

Tuxedo urchins are little sea urchins with wide color stripes running between their spine rows. Tuxedo urchins are usually blue or black, although they can also be red.

Like other urchins, tuxedos feed on algae. They are greedy feeders who will scour your tank for whatever algae they may locate regularly. They’ll also climb on your glass and clean up after themselves. Unlike other urchins, Tuxedos will not bulldoze your coral or rock work. However, little frags or empty hermit crab shells may become hitchhikers on the urchin’s back. Tuxedos use these objects to disguise themselves from predators.

  • Sea hare 

Only a few medical researchers and marine aquarium hobbyists may be familiar with sea hares, which are marine gastropod mollusks. They acquire their name from the two rabbit-ear-like tentacles on the top of their heads, known as rhinophores. They are utilized for scent. Instead, sea hares employ toxic secretions from their skin to ward off predators. They may also squirt or blast a cloud of purple ink. Lobsters and crabs feast on them. Humans who try to eat sea hares can become sick, even if sea hare eggs are eaten raw and fried as a delicacy.

7 best for Saltwater tank, algae eater

  • Lemon peel angelfish 

A Lemon Peel Angel is another large but not enormous alternative. However, most dwarf angels have been observed picking at liverock and are classified as algae eaters. When it comes to angels, Lemon Peels are often considered the best. Many hobbyists who have possessed a Lemon Peel claim that hair algae and bryopsis immediately established themselves in their tank after their angel died. They are not fussy eaters and will eat anything put in front of them.

  • Coral banded shrimp 

The Coral Banded Shrimp is a common saltwater invertebrate that may be found in various marine aquariums. In the aquarium, they are generally found in narrow cracks or hanging upside down on living rock.

They spend most of their time in concealment and are rarely seen roaming about. They must get their fair share of food when it’s time to eat. This may need a feeding stick and the food placement immediately in front of them for them to grip. They tend to pinch corals and anemones in search of food. It’s probably not a suitable option for reef aquariums.

  • Quoyi parrotfish 

Parrotfish (Scaridae) are good algae eaters for the reef, but certain species may also consume rock corals. Although there are rare exceptions, most of these fish will grow beyond large for most residential aquaria. The fact that parrotfish consume a lot and frequently must be considered.

It’s beneficial to have a lot of algae in the aquarium for them to feed on. Between the stones, these fish will slumber in a mucus cocoon. Scarus quoyi is appropriate for coral aquaria and is the most commonly found species in tanks. It has a voracious appetite. Thus thorough filtration is required in the tank.

  • Mexcian turbo snail 

Turbo Snails are another voracious snail that can clean glass and rocks. They originate in Mexico’s Gulf of California, as their name implies. These snails are noted for eating hair algae, although they may consume various algae. While these snails are excellent workers, they do have some drawbacks. They’ll clean the tank from top to bottom, including the rock formations. It means that they may accidentally knock down fragile rocks or coral frags with their shell when moving around. It isn’t a big deal. For others, it might not be worth it. The most vexing problem is that they cannot turn themselves over.

  • Coral beauty dwarf angel 

This saltwater dwarf angelfish can be found munching on algae in shallow reef regions and lagoons. This fish also exists as a deep water species that may be found in deeper open seas. On the other hand, this tiny 3-4′′ species will rarely travel out into open water or leave the reef and lagoons’ shallow food-rich zones.

These fish will repeatedly pick at a sessile invertebrate, causing harm or death. Like most other Centropyge species, the Coral Beauty does not grow to be particularly large. It still requires a medium-sized aquarium with lots of open water to swim around and hiding spots and rocks to collect algae from.

  • Peppermint shrimp 

Peppermint shrimp are omnivores who eat leftovers and occasionally pick at algae. They will also devour nuisance Aiptasia anemones, making them a great alternative for treating this problem. When dealing with an established aiptasia condition, they work best in groups. They’ll make good pets in your tank because they’re colorful and have intriguing behavior. Most hobbyists can be trained to feed them when they approach the tank by conducting a dance on the front glass in a short amount of time. This hermaphroditic species gets along well with other Lysmata species in groups. 

  • Kole tang 

The Eye of the Yellow Kole Tangs is a calm and reasonably priced saltwater aquarium fish. The body is oval, with a strong spine at the base of the caudal fin. This spine is a distinguishing feature of all Tangs and Surgeonfish. It is utilized as a slicing weapon when demonstrating hostility against other fish or in self-defense. The Kole tang is perfect for a communal tank. This fish won’t bother your crabs or shrimp, and it won’t nip at your corals. Therefore it’s deemed reef safe.

How to pick a suitable algae eater for a tank?

Algae eaters are species that live on algae as a food source. However, not all organisms consume all forms of algae. Therefore it’s vital to find an algae eater who will eat the particular algae inside your tank. Snails, shrimp, clams, and some fish, such as some varieties of catfish, are popular algae feeders.

It’s important to remember that algae eaters might not even be able to exist only on live algae growth. In many situations, sinking wafers or pellets and fresh vegetables may be required to complement your algae-eating pet’s diet. Do your homework before purchasing an algae eater to verify that you can meet its tank requirements. As you would any other fish species, you must be cautious about overfeeding your algae eaters. This may increase your algae problem. The best general rule is to feed your fish two or three tiny meals. Only give them as much of it as they can take in around two minutes.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q1. What is the best algae eater for an aquarium?

  • Amano Shrimp 
  • Peppermint shrimp
  • Coral beauty dwarf
  • Kole tang 

Q2. Does placo eat algae?

Yes, Plecos are known as “janitor fish” since they are scavengers who consume and clean up after themselves. They are ideal for aquarists who are just starting.

Q3. How many algae eaters are sufficient for my tank?

Not more than 3. It depends on the type of algae you want to clean. 

Q4. How many gallons does placo need?

75 gallons

Q5. What do suckerfish eat?

Algae, insects, zooplankton 


The Thresher Shark: All You Need To Know!

The Thresher Shark is also known as the Alopias Vulpinus or Fox Shark. Its name originates from the sharks abnormally big tail (caudal fin), which is in most cases, as long as the shark itself!

Today, there are three surviving species of this Shark:

  • Pelagic Thresher
  • Bigeye Thresher
  • Thresher of the Field

However, scientists are baffled as to whether or not a fourth species may exist. This is still a mystery to aficionados, but many feel that the discovery of a fourth species is just a matter of time.

Also shrouded in obscurity is its beginning. Most likely, the closer relative of the Fox Shark is the Megamouth Shark. In an effort to uncover the many enigmas surrounding this peculiar fish, researchers are working nonstop.

Thresher sharks can grow to over 6 metres (20 feet) in length and 600 kilogrammes in weight, the largest known specimens (216 pounds). Bigeye Threshers are generally the largest with Pelagic Threshers being the smallest.

These are sluggish developing sharks. They achieve their maturity between 8 and 13 years old and survive about 22 years. Again, there is quite a bit of mystery here. Although some people believe this shark has the potential to live considerably longer, this has yet to be proven.


Although Thresher Sharks favour open and deep waters, they are often seen in shallow waters around coastal locations. Typically, they aren’t seen below 500 metres (1,640ft).

They prefer the Pacific and Indian Oceans, particularly the continental shelves of North and South America. But the specific habitat, again, remains mostly a mystery.

System of Intuition

All sharks have electro sensors, which allow them to detect electrical impulses from living things, but they also have an exceptional heat exchanger system. They are referred to as “endoderms” because of their unique thermoregulation. In other words, they produce heat by an internal bodily process such as boosting their metabolism and muscular shivering. Thresher Sharks are the only species with this particular trait.

Social Interactions

They tend to be lone wolves and prefer to operate on their own. But on occasion, they get together in big bunches. The Indian Ocean has seen the most of these occurrences. The reasoning for them get togeathers is yet unknown.

Hunting Behavior

These sharks can certainly swim fast. They are notorious for slaughtering their prey with their big tails and are famed for extraordinary jumping methods and behaviour termed “breaching” when they jump out of the water and into the air.

While hunting, they throw themselves with their whole body out of the water and do crazy turns. When they’re out in the open ocean, they’ll go after schools of fish like Tuna and Mackerel, as well as certain kinds of seabirds.


As with so many other characteristics of this intriguing shark, the reproductive behaviour is not widely investigated. We do know that they are Viviparous, which implies that eggs evolve in the uterus till delivery.

Pups typically range in length from 120 to 160cm and are born in litters of 2-5. (47 to 63 inches).

In the womb, there is a unique process known as “oophagy.” The puppies actually leave their eggs, still in the womb, and feed themselves with all the unfertilized eggs.

Relationship with Humans

The main hazard to the Thresher Shark is human fishing. Many fisherman catch them for sport, while others catch them for their fins, liver oil, tails, and flesh.

This species’ low reproduction rate relative to other sharks necessitates new legislation in light of recent population declines in order to keep the delicate balance of the marine ecosystem from being disrupted.

Humans are at very low risk from this species. The main concern of injury is divers getting hit with the massive tail. Attacks of any kind on humans are almost unheard of.

Reference: Sharksider


How Much Are Koi Fish? Why are they so costly?

For their gorgeous pedigree and unusual coloration, koi fish are recognized to embellish garden ponds and restaurant interiors. They’re in lounge areas even though Koi are generally referred to as Japanese Carp.

A remarkable record sale shook the world of koi a few years ago. A Kohaku koi that was in the pristine condition sold for $1.8 million! It was a 9-year-old specimen with brilliant red-orange splotches on a perfect white body. This gorgeous female fish drew the attention of Japanese artists. They immortalized her in stunning artwork shown during the historic sale.

If you’ve always wanted your koi, don’t despair: not every koi costs a million dollars. The wrinkled old $20 note in your wallet may get you a good fish from a good pet store. Though not all koi are valued equally, you can rest certain that each has a long cultural heritage and may provide more aesthetic value to your pond.

Kois are symbolic of affluence and longevity. They are more costly than other pond fish. A variety of things influence their worth. Color, heredity, physical form, age, and sex are examples of these factors. The price rises in direct proportion to the attractiveness and size of the fish. The value of koi is heavily influenced by its breeding. Most domesticated types in the United States and Europe are affordable. Those developed by Japanese experts can potentially cost more than a vehicle!

Rare genetic lines produce the most valuable koi. These are only bred in the highest-quality facilities in Japan and sold at live or online auctions. Individuals with the highest prices are usually enormous or jumbo-sized when they are sold. It indicates that they have been cared for by the source facility for a long time. 

Some of these facilities produce fish that compete in the All Japan Koi Show. It’s a prominent yearly event that shows some of the world’s most valuable Nishikigoi (Japanese for “living gems”).


Nishikigoi is often known as living jewels or brocaded carp. It is the carp that we name Koi. Nishikigoi is known for its beautiful patterns and colors, which we still admire and enjoy today.

Even though Koi are not native to Japan, Japanese breeders are credited with fine-tuning and breeding them to today’s amazing color variety.

The Big Three are as follows:

There are 15 different types of Koi. The three varieties known as Kohaku, Sanke, and Showa are the most popular. In the United States and Europe, these Koi fish are known as the “big three.”

Types of Kiwa:

Kiwa is separated into two categories based on very edgy designs.

  1. Kamisori Kiwa: Kiwa with razor-sharp edges that go through the individual scales.
  2. Maruzome Kiwa: Maruzome Kiwa gives the trailing tip of the red patterns a scalloped look, like the edge of a cherry blossom petal.

Please keep in mind that while assessing Kiwa, the trailing edge of the design is always taken into account. (i.e., the edge of the Koi fish closest to the tail)

The Distinctive Colors

Koi experts look for the following color variants when choosing a Champion Koi:

  1. Kohaku has a pearly white surface with red (hi) patterns and distinct edges.
  2. Showa is a pure black body foundation with white and red colors, for example.
  3. Metallic-looking, red, and beautiful orange markings, such as Kujaku, are preferred by peacocks.

Why are Koi fish so expensive?

The value of Koi fish is determined by many obvious variables. It includes the quality of the fish and their colors. Koi fish are commonly divided into three classes based on their quality and price:-

  • Pond-raised Koi – The Koi we produce in ponds are the simplest to come by and the most affordable on the market.
  • Decorative value Koi – It’s a popular type of decorative fish that we raise, such as Butterfly Koi. These are less expensive than show-quality Koi fish but more expensive than pond-raised fish.
  • Show grade Koi – The highest quality Koi fish in the world and the most expensive. These are developed for Japanese Koi exhibits and competitions.

There are 14 reasons why koi fish cost so much:-

  • Successful Spawning

Any Koi keeper will tell you that despite hundreds of Koi eggs being laid during spawning, only 20% of good Koi survive. Sometimes survival is by luck. The increased odds of survival make Koi a more prized and expensive pet fish.

But what is a spawning behavior, exactly?

  • Koi Spawning Patterns:

Male Koi fish exhibit significant interest in female Koi fish and follow them for a day or two during the spawning process. It occurs once a year. Finally, the male Koi fish chase and nudge the female Koi fish early in the morning. The spawning process begins.

Female Koi lay hundreds of eggs during spawning, quickly fertilized by interested males. This is where the high pricing and great quality come into play.

  • The Egg Stage:

Koi eggs cling to almost anything they come into touch with. Koi fish usually lay their eggs in aquatic plants such as water lettuce and water hyacinth. If you wish to produce Koi, I usually recommend including plants in the pond. Around 20% of the hundreds and thousands of eggs perish through fungus, sterility, or decay to death.

  • The Hatchlings:

The eggs hatch in around 4-5 days under ideal water conditions. Until they can eat food, the hatchlings subsist on their yolk sac. Despite this, 20% of the hatchlings perish before reaching 1 inch in length.

  • The Selection Process:

Only around 60% of Koi fish reach 1 inch in length and make it through the hatching process. The culling procedure begins here for the farmers.

Breeders toss all of the poor and malformed fish into the bargain bin during the procedure. As a result, the healthy Koi fry eats a high-protein diet for 3-4 weeks before being examined. It happens when they reach 2 to 3 inches in length. After a few weeks, breeders check the young Koi and reject another 15% of them into the bargain bin. As a result, the Grand Champion Koi list only includes the highest-quality Koi.

After successfully counting, the Koi fish are either sold locally or globally for hundreds to thousands of dollars.

  • Body Shape or Conformation

Because they are unaware of its value, Koi hobbyists sometimes ignore the morphology or body shape of Koi fish. Let me tell you something: the quality and pricing of Koi fish are heavily influenced by their body form. The award-winning Koi fish has no flaws or deformations in its body shape. The ideal Koi fish conformation is a torpedo-shaped, identical body with even fins that match the body.

  • Color and Pattern Variation

The color diversity and unique designs that leave the observers in amazement are one thing that outshines Koi. Koi colors are divided into six distinct categories. It ranges from metallic and white to blue, yellow, red, and black. Not all Koi owners like all of the colors and patterns. As a result, the exorbitant prices.

The vividness of Koi is also affected by the depth of Koi skin cells. The brighter the Koi, the more expensive it is. 

At a higher price, Koi breeders select the best colors and grow them into a brighter look through a healthy diet.

Sultry crimson spots on a white body surface shone like diamonds on the Grand Champion Koi that sold for $1.8 million in Japan. As a result, the price was justified in a specialist’s eyes.

As a result, the value of Koi fish rises due to their uniqueness and purity of colors and patterns.

  • The Biosecurity of Koi farms

Experienced Koi breeders maintain rigorous biosecurity on their farms. It’s done to avoid fish infections and maintain an active inventory system.

These Koi ponds are normally located in isolated locations to minimize disease contamination of the water. It costs a lot of money.

  • The Importance of a Big Pond

In contrast to goldfish, Koy guppies require a large pond to survive. It includes other commercial aquarium fish.

Water quality affects the depth and intensity of Koi’s color and shine. Thus breeders prefer to breed and raise them in big ponds. As a result, a Koi farm requires a large space with adequate ventilation and filtration to increase its total productivity.

  • Costs of Importation

Whatever you do, you do it. Let’s face it: Japanese koi are unrivaled in terms of quality. As a result, all countries import show-quality Koi from Japan. It raises the overall price of Koi fish.

  • Connoisseur’s Craze for the pet Koi

It’s a supply and demand situation. The bigger the demand, the more expensive it is. Koi has a cult following. As a result, Koi are costly.

Koi is regarded as a holy pet in Japanese culture, bringing good fortune and wealth to the household. As a result, people have a deep fondness for Koi. They desire it in their garden ponds and huge indoor aquariums. It’s great for winning great contests, such as the All-Japan Grand Koi Competition. It’s the most popular. As a result, the exorbitant price. Let’s look at some Grand Champion Koi from the show’s history.

  • Koi Luster of Superior Quality

The skin of high-quality Koi fish is shiny and pigmented, with no imperfections. You can tell the difference between cotton and silk just like you can distinguish between cotton and silk. The high-quality Koi is immediately identified by its gleaming, shiny body.

  • Overall Personality – Elegance & Quality

It’s an arbitrary choice to judge quality and elegance based on Koi’s personality. On the other hand, Koi specialists depend largely on this element. High-quality Koi fish have been shown to function exceedingly well in various situations. It includes swimming and interacting (aggressive or slow Koi fish are naturally devalued.)

Additionally, Koi owners evaluate the fish based on how smoothly they bend their bodies in the water. If a Koi fish appears to be healthier and more lively than the rest of the shoal, it is always given a better rating.

  • Breeding time is extended.

It is not everyone’s cup of tea to breed Koi. Koi breeding takes patience and perseverance, unlike guppies and bettas. To nurture and sell show-quality Koi on the market, every breeder will require at least 3 to 5 years.

  • Distinguishing Characteristics

Breeding Koi fish is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity, and breeders risk everything to hit the jackpot.

When breeders feel very daring, they may cross some of the rarest and oddest fish with specific characteristics. Consequently, an exceptional young koi emerges. It displays stunning colors and patterns. As a result, breeders charge an exorbitant premium for Koi fish with unique characteristics.

  • Legacy & Heritage

You might be shocked to learn that Koi fish were originally bred solely for food. On the other hand, breeders began to see immense promise in breeding the fish and making a career from it as time went on. Koi fish are now housed in manicured ponds and huge aquariums for their elaborate designs and stunning colors.

  • Genetics

The most valuable koi fish and those who go on to win international competitions have genetic lineages that can be traced back several generations. Sanke (Taisho Sanshoku), Showa (Showa Sanshoku), and Kohaku are the three primary kinds of Gosanke, the most valuable koi breed. In the competition to produce koi that are ideal, many of the most modern and traditional Japanese farms solely breed these extremely popular types.

When valuing certain breeds, koi tournaments and auctions follow stringent guidelines. An ideal Sanke koi must have a fully white foundation with no indications of yellow. On the other hand, the red markings of a Kohaku must be not just vivid but also well-defined throughout the margins. These variants are further divided depending on the tiniest details of the patterns and where they appear on the fish’s body. The more unique the characteristics, the more valuable the fish.

Domestic variants purchased at your local pet store or from non-specialized online fish stores might be more difficult to categorize as a specific breed. These koi are usually of mixed origin and have been raised for personal use in a pond or tank rather than for exhibition. On the other hand, some domestic koi are lovely and can grow to be stunning individuals.

  • Gender

Females of highly esteemed koi breeds are frequently more expensive than males. You can see it from the fixed-price catalog at Kodama Koi Farm. They have rounded fins and grow to be quite huge. Furthermore, strong females may produce hundreds of healthy eggs. It ensures the continuation of their race. Breeders are meticulous when finding the most attractive and healthy girls. It’s no surprise that a jumbo-sized Kohaku female was the most expensive koi ever sold.

Top koi breed males are likewise quite expensive, although they are often simpler to get by. When it comes to domestic koi, both sexes are priced similarly. Koi are frequently sold unsexed in pet stores because they might be difficult to sex before adulthood.

  • Chagoi Koi

The Chagoi Koi is regarded as the most human-friendly ornamental koi type. This is due to their voracious appetites, as they compete to be the first to be fed by their human owners. Because they’re so food-driven, they’re the simplest koi fish to hand-feed.

  • Ki Utsuri Koi 

Ki Utsuri Koi is the rarest ornamental carp variety, with dazzling yellow and lacquer-black color patterns.

  • The Ghost Koi

One of the fastest-growing koi kinds is Ghost Koi. They’re a cross between Mirror Carps and Ogon Koi with a glittering sheen. They’re certainly a sight to behold, thanks to their ghost-like color pattern.

  • Butterfly Koi Fish

In western aquariums, the Butterfly Koi is one of the most popular koi. They’re a cross between traditional Japanese Koi and carps with lengthy fins. Their slim forms and long flowing fins give them the name butterfly.

  • Black and White Koi Fish

The scaleless bodies of Black & White Koi are also known as Kikokuryu. They have a white color foundation with a black net pattern running down its single row of scales. It’s followed by red, orange, or yellow patches of color.

  • Japanese Koi Fish

Japanese Koi are a species of ornamental carp that originated in Japan in the early nineteenth century. Rice farmers gathered and nurtured the most colorful and unusual wild-caught carp fish. It results in a rich gene pool that permits traditional Japanese Koi to outlast most koi fish variations.

What illnesses do koi fish have a chance of contracting?

A virus is known as Koi herpesvirus, or KHV, is responsible for most disease-related koi fish mortality.

Only common carps (Cyprinus carpio) and koi fish are affected by this extremely infectious virus. It has not been recorded in any other species.

The symptoms of KHV are non-specific, although the following are the most prevalent indicators that a koi fish is infected:

  • gill lesions that are white or grey.
  • Skin hemorrhages.
  • Sunken eyes.
  • Evident difficulty breathing.

KHV infection is almost always lethal for koi fish, and death generally occurs within 24-48 hours of symptoms.

There is no known way to prevent KHV from entering a koi fish tank or pond. There are steps you may do to keep the virus from spreading and killing all of your other koi fish:

  • look for obvious signs of KHV infection in new koi fish before introducing them to your tank.
  • Keep new koi fish in isolation for 2-4 weeks before exposing them to one of your other koi.
  • Remove koi fish with KHV-specific symptomatology as soon as possible. It helps prevent the virus from wiping out the entire koi fish population in your aquarium/pond.

Ulcer infections and fish lice infestations are also common in koi fish.


Some koi fish may live up to 50 years in captivity. The care that arises with keeping a koi fish is considerably higher!

To ensure that your pet koi fish has a long and happy life, satisfy its basic tank needs and feed it well-balanced food. Koi fish are as beautiful as they are large, and they will be the simplest aquarium fish to care for in their size category!


Q. What is the price of a koi fish?

A variety of circumstances determines it. Depending on size and variety, pond grade Koi typically range from $50 to $150. On the other hand, some show-quality kinds might set you back more than $10,000.

Q. Are koi fish expensive?

Koi fish are the world’s most valuable pet, with prices ranging from $50 to $2.2 million. They’re pricey, but they’re also high-maintenance. They require regular food and a clean koi pond. You’ll also need aquatic plants for them to flourish.

Q. What are the prices of koi fish?

Koi fish can cost anything from $50 to $10,000 or more. The majority of Koi will cost between $50 and $150.

Q. What is the value of a 20-year-old koi?

Depending on the size and current market value, a healthy 20-year-old Koi would cost roughly $200 or more. It’s if you have a healthy adult Koi fish without blemishes or spots. It will have a good body form. Once again, congrats! It’s probably worth a lot more!

Q. Why are koi fish so costly?

Koi are a variety of carp that are now some of the most costly pet fish. But why is that? Koi were first bred in Japan in the 1700s. They were primarily used by rice farmers who wanted to breed them for their different colors and designs. It’s comparable to how we breed dogs for specific characteristics.


How Often Should You Change Carbon Filter in Fish Tank?

Do you have a carbon filter in your fish tank? Changing your tank’s carbon filter on a regular basis could be on your mind if that’s the case. We will get into that subject, of course, but first, let’s explore what carbon in your tank truly is.

Understanding AC, or Activated Carbon

Activated carbon, sometimes referred to as AC or even activated charcoal, is a widely used method for maintaining a clean and healthy aquarium at home.

The activated carbon is placed in your filter, and as water went through, the carbon cleans it.

Charcoal has a limited shelf life, though. Once it is done absorbing the contaminants in your tank, it simply stops operating.

Ideally, you should be replacing your activated carbon every two to four weeks, but if you see that your water is turning nasty before that, you might want to consider changing it weekly, instead.

Activated carbon is a term that can refer to a variety of different things

Activated carbon may be manufactured of a number of resources, such wood, or things that have been converted into charcoal.

When processed at exceptionally high temperatures, the carbon is believed to be “charged.” You may notice tiny holes or pores in the carbon if you look at the surface.

As a result, the carbon is able to perform like a sponge. In other words, as long as the carbon is “charged,” it may take in substances and scents from the tank.

There are a lot of different varieties of activated charcoal on the market, but only one type is acceptable to use in an aquarium. It’s called bituminous charcoal.

Granule activated charcoal (GAC) is another name for this kind of carbon, which is available in granule form.

Is Activated Carbon Necessary in an Aquarium Filter?

To begin, you may be unsure if adding activated carbon to your tank is really essential. This is what AC performs in the filter, and we’ll explain why you should use it.

The water in the aquarium often has microscopic particles floating around, as anybody who has ever looked at it will attest. The water, on the other hand, obscures some details.

Some of the things you can’t see include phenols, which generate odour from your tank, and tannins, which can affect the colour of the water. Chlorine and chloromines are also present in the water.

However, you should be aware that activated charcoal will not remove everything in the water. For example, it doesn’t eliminate any poisons like nitrate, nitrite, or ammonia.

A further disadvantage of using activated charcoal is that it does not remove heavy metals like iron from the body. If your water has any of these contaminants, you’ll need to chemically treat it.

Another item that activated charcoal will absorb is medicine. However, you want to retain your medication in the tank case the fish require it.

So, if you are treating an unwell fish, you should remove the carbon from the filter.

How Long Does Activated Carbon Last?

Activated charcoal may be kept in the filter for months, according to popular belief. Simply said, this isn’t true.

Activated carbon’s shelf life can be affected by a variety of factors, including the tank’s design and the surrounding environment.

There is also the fact that certain brands of activated carbon lasts longer than others. Some could last only two weeks; other kinds might last three or four weeks.

You also have to consider how unclean your tank is. In a tank that becomes dirty relatively rapidly, you might only want to keep your activated carbon in for one to two weeks before changing it out.

It’s possible that you’ll need to replace your AC more frequently if your aquarium has corals that produce biochemicals into the water column.

If your tank has turtles, it is highly probable that your water will become dirty more faster than if you had snails in there.

Activated carbon is an excellent water filter, but it loses its effectiveness when the pores get clogged with pollutants.

Changing Your Activated Carbon

Finally, here’s how to swap out your activated carbon if it’s worn out.

It must be contained in a mesh bag in order to be properly used. A decent rule of thumb is to put a half cup of activated carbon in the bag for every 10 gallons of water is in your tank.

It’s better to run the filter bag under water to eliminate any dust, and then set it aside.

Next, take out the old activated carbon and filter back from the filter system and trash it. The replacement filter bag may now be put into the filter’s opening.

Once it’s in place, make sure the filter is operating appropriately, and then breathe a sigh of relief! You have created your fish tank a pleasant, clean habitat for your aquatic critters.


China Harbor Engineering Company awarded for expansion works in Dar es Salaam port

Dar es SalaamThe government of Tanzania has signed a contract with the Chinese state-owned company China Harbor Engineering Company (CHEC) for expansion of the country’s largest port in Dar es Salaam. The agreement worth 154 million USD and provides for the construction of a new Ro-Ro terminal, as well as the deepening of seven existing berths, in order to allow the port to accept larger container ships. With the investment, Tanzania hopes to become a hub for regional trade, as according to forecasts the expansion of the port will increase its cargo turnover by 2020 from 14 to 28 million tons per year. The plans also envisage the construction of a railway to the port, designed for the movement of trains at speeds up to 120 km/h.

“Today we begin to rewrite the history of the Port of Dar es Salaam”, said the Minister of Works, Transport and Communication, Makame Mbarawa. “Deepening and strengthening of the berths will allow big container ships to dock”, added he.

In January of this year, the World Bank granted Tanzania a 305 million USD loan for the Dar es Salaam expansion project.

Dar es Salaam, a major city and commercial port on Tanzania’s Indian Ocean coast. The port is one of three ocean ports in the country and handles over 90% of the country’s cargo traffic. According to the International Association of Ports and Harbors, it is the fourth largest port on the African continent’s Indian Ocean coastline after Durban, Mombasa and Maputo.


Cosco Shipping expand port assets with two acquisitions

Shanghai International PortCosco Shipping acquired 15% share from Shanghai International Port Group (SIPG) for 18.97 billion CNY (or 2.79 billion USD), by which will receive large stake in Shanghai Port, as well as other assets and activities operated by the holding. Following the transaction, Cosco Shipping becomes third largest investor in the giant Chinese port group, which is operator in world’s busiest container and cargo port. The company aims to use its position for establishing of sustainable partnership between its own ports and SIPG, but also the expand its business on East-West routes.

In separate transaction, Cosco Shipping acquired 51% share Noatum Port Holdings for 228 million EUR, having an option to buy the remaining 49% later. Noatum Port Holdings operated the ports in Bilbao and Valencia, which improves the portfolio of the Chinese group in Southern Europe and Mediterranean Sea.

With new acquisitions, Cosco strengthen its positions in Europe after earlier won concession of Greek port of Piraeus. The company aims to use its position in SIPG and establish partnership and container service between Shanghai and Southern Europe. Also the Chinese transportation group plans to invest in port of Piraeus and establish a transhipment hub for trade between Asia and Eastern Europe. Two Chinese officials will visit Piraeus to sign a cooperation memorandum between Greek port and the port of Shanghai, concerning the increase in incoming cargo from China to Europe. Port of Piraeus had a throughput of 3.75 million TEU last year and expects this to exceed 4 million TEU this year. Cosco plans to increase the volume to 5 million by 2018 and aims to also increase cruise traffic from 1 million passengers per year to 1.5 million passengers per year in the short term.


Empyrean Energy started 3D seismic survey off Hong Kong

3D seismic survey chinaEmpyrean Energy started 3D seismic survey of its Block 29/11 in the offshore zone of China. The company fully owns the license of exploration of the block under a Geophysical Survey Agreement and has subsequent right to enter a pre-negotiated Production Sharing Contract with the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC). Empyrean Energy contracted China Oilfield Services Limited (COSL) to complete the survey of 580 sq km, which will need up to 0 days to be completed and another 90 days data to be processed. In event of a commercial discovery, the company will need to cooperate with CNOOC, as the Chinese company will have a back-in right to 51% interest in the license.

“We are very excited to make further progress in collaboration with CNOOC on Block 29/11”, said CEO of Empyrean Energy, Tom Kelly. “The block has two material prospects, Jade and Topaz, mapped on good quality 2D seismic data and the 3D seismic survey which is now underway will hopefully enable Empyrean to mature these exciting prospects for drilling”, added he.

Block 29/11 is located on 120 nautical miles off Hong Kong. It covers offshore area of 1,800 sq km and has water depths ranging from 340-600 m.

Empyrean Energy PLC is an oil and gas explorer and producer listed on the London Stock Exchange.


Saudi Aramco and Bahri head joint-venture with Lamprell and Hyundai Heavy Industries for building largest shipyard in the Middle East

Saudi Arabia shipyardDubai shipbuilding company Lamprell, specializing in servicing the offshore industry, signed an agreement with Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabia’s national shipping company Bahri and Hyundai Heavy Industries on the joint implementation of the project to build the largest shipyard in the Middle East. The shipyard with an area of ​​4.3 square km will be located on the Ras al-Khaimah coast in the east of Saudi Arabia. The commissioning of the plant is scheduled for 2019, reaching the projected capacity by 2022. The project provides for the creation of four production zones. It is assumed that Lamprell will become a technical partner in two zones, which will specialize in the construction, maintenance and repair of drilling rigs and commercial vessels. The technical partner of the zones intended for construction and repair of supply vessels and commercial vessels will be the South Korean Hyundai Heavy Industries.

According to Lamprell, the company’s investments in the project will amount to 140 million USD and the company’s share in the project will be 20%. Controlling the shipyard will be Saudi Aramco with a 50.1% stake and investing in construction up to 350.7 million USD, Bahri will receive 19.9% ​​and invest 139.3 million USD in the project, while Hyundai Heavy Industries will hold a share of 10% and invests 70 million USD.

The arrangements stipulate that in the first ten years of operation of the shipyard, the Saudi Arabian Oil Company will place on it an order for the supply of at least 20 drilling rigs, while Bahri – 52 commercial vessels.