PVC Pipe: Dimensions, Size Charts, Schedule 20, 40, 80 & 120

PVC pipe is something you’ve heard of. It’s a white plastic tube commonly used for drainage and plumbing. Polyvinyl chloride has become a popular alternative to metal, and it’s no surprise given its many uses. It is one of the most popular plastics globally due to its strength and durability. It’s also great in terms of ease of installation and its low cost, which is why it’s so common in plumbing. They are thermoplastic materials that can be molded into various shapes to make pipes and fittings. It’s also great for valves and other liquid handling equipment.

The nominal system is used to measure the component. This means that rather than specific measures, all measurements are dependent on the types of structures. A one-inch line is defined as 0.84 inches measured from one end to the other. Each form of pipe schedule has its own set of applications. Suppose you’re interested in learning more about its dimensions and size chart. I suggest you continue reading to learn more about them for your next project.

Here’s everything you need to know about PVC pipe sizes and charts, including dimensions and more!

Getting Started

Late in the nineteenth century, polyvinyl chloride was discovered. The newly-generated chemical gas, vinyl chloride, was exposed to sunlight. Scientists observed that it underwent a chemical reaction that resulted in an off-white solid substance. This substance is now called polymerization. To understand this substance, I highly recommend you continue reading below:

pvc pipe

What is PVC Pipe?

This is one of the most widespread and adaptable types of plastic piping. It has been in use for more than 80 years, serving a variety of applications in various market sectors all over the world. These are incredibly sturdy and durable, with excellent corrosion resistance. They have little risk of succumbing to thermal expansion or contraction than metal piping. These pipes are both affordable and durable, and they come in a variety of sizes with various attachments. Regardless of the type of PVC variant, you may use them for both warm and cold-water applications.

What Is It Used For? 

Plumbers broadly apply them in constructing sewer and water mains. They’re also used for irrigation systems. Since they are easy to install and lightweight, they are both cost-effective and environmentally friendly. They’re also strong and durable, with the added benefit of being easily recyclable. This component has a smooth surface. It helps water flow faster due to reduced friction than tubing constructed of other materials like cast iron or concrete. You may have them in various lengths and wall thicknesses. They also come in various diameters to meet international sizing requirements like DIN 8061 and ASTM F441. ASTM D1785 is another standard to know about.

What Are Its Benefits?

  • They are the principal means of transporting water and electricity in many industries. The key reasons for its extensive use are its extreme heat and corrosion tolerance.
  • Compared to concrete and metal, bits flat surface has low friction with traveling liquids. As a result, it’s a common material for water supply tubes.
  • It’s light and small, making it perfect for laying tube lines across long distances. This cuts down on the fuel needed to transport them, making them more eco-friendly.
  • It is cost-effective since it has excellent mass production using a relatively simple method.
  • It’s easy to form into various shapes and sizes, making it an excellent material with a wide range of uses.
  • It’s challenging and long-lasting, and it can withstand a lot of pressure. As a result, it’s a good choice for subsurface tubes and lines that must carry pressurized fluids.
  • Its chemical inertness or resistance to chemical interactions with other compounds is a valuable chemical feature. This ensures and transports drinking liquids used for home purposes safely.
  • When put underground, they can endure a hundred years. This makes it a low-maintenance and preferred material for large tube line networks. Historical substances like steel and iron would have extremely high maintenance and overhaul costs.
  • Installing and maintaining them is simple. Compared to traditional materials, its failure or break rate is exceedingly low.
  • It has a low carbon content, which results in less hazardous emissions during production. They are simple to recycle and reuse for different applications. Whether from building trash salvaging and repurposing or industrial waste recycling, it doesn’t matter. 8,000 tons of them are recycled each year throughout Europe through the Vinyl Plus program.

How Are They Made?

These tubes are made by extruding Polyvinyl chloride as raw material. They generally follow the same procedures as standard pipe extrusion operations:

  1. Direct materials pellets/powder supply the PVC twin screw extruder.
  2. Many extruder zones are melting and heating.
  3. Polymerizing material through a die to form a pipe
  4. The shaped pipe is cooled.
  5. Finally, workers or machines cut them into the desired lengths.

Despite having a manufacturing process similar to that of most plastic piping, they have inherent properties. They present significant hurdles in production and trade placement to pipe makers.

Schedule 10

Nominal size [inches]Outside diameter [mm]Outside diameter [inches]Wall thickness [mm]Wall thickness [inches]Weight [kg/m]Weight [lb/ft]
1/8″ NPS610.30.411.240.0490.280.19
1/4″ NPS813.70.541.650.0650.490.33
3/8″ NPS1017.10.681.650.0650.630.42
1/2″ NPS1521.30.842.110.08310.67
3/4″ NPS2026.71.052.110.0831.280.86
1″ NPS2533.41.322.770.1092.091.4
1 1/4″ NPS3242.21.662.770.1092.71.81
1 1/2″ NPS4048.31.92.770.1093.112.09
2″ NPS5060.32.3752.770.1093.932.64
2 1/2″ NPS65732.8753.050.125.263.53
3″ NPS8088.93.53.050.126.454.33
3 1/2″ NPS90101.643.050.127.44.97
4″ NPS100114.34.53.050.128.365.61
5″ NPS125141.35.5633.40.13411.577.77
6″ NPS150168.36.6253.40.13413.849.29
8″ NPS200219.18.6253.760.14819.9613.4
10″ NPS25027310.754.190.16527.7818.65
12″ NPS300323.812.754.570.183624.17
14″ NPS350355.6146.350.2554.6936.71
16″ NPS400406.4166.350.2562.6442.05
18″ NPS450457186.350.2570.5747.39
20″ NPS500508206.350.2578.5552.73
22″ NPS550559226.350.2586.5458.07
24″ NPS600610246.350.2594.5363.41
26″ NPS650660267.920.312127.3685.6
28″ NPS700711287.920.312137.3292.26
30″ NPS750762307.920.312147.2898.93
32″ NPS800813327.920.312157.24105.59
34″ NPS850864347.920.312167.2112.25
36″ NPS900914367.920.312176.96118.92

Schedule 20 PVC Pipe Dimensions Chart

They have the lowest resistance, and customers often use them in gravity-fed septic systems and drainage. They’re also used for stormwater projects. Its wall is significantly lighter than Schedule 40s. You should only utilize it in situations where no traffic or other types of machinery are crossing the region. The outside diameter is the same as SDR 35, and all Schedule 20 and SDR 35 fittings are interchangeable.

Here’s the appropriate schedule 20 PVC pipe dimensions chart you need.

Nominal size [inches]Outside diameter [mm]Outside diameter [inches]Wall thickness [mm]Wall thickness [inches]Weight [kg/m]Weight [lb/ft]
8″ NPS200219.18.6256.350.2533.3122.36
10″ NPS25027310.756.350.2541.7728.04
12″ NPS300323.812.756.350.2549.7333.38
14″ NPS350355.6147.920.31267.945.61
16″ NPS400406.4167.920.31277.8352.27
18″ NPS450457187.920.31287.7158.94
20″ NPS500508209.530.375117.1578.6
22″ NPS550559229.530.375129.1386.61
24″ NPS600610249.530.375141.1294.62
26″ NPS6506602612.70.5202.72136.17
28″ NPS7007112812.70.5218.69146.85
30″ NPS7507623012.70.5234.67157.53
32″ NPS8008133212.70.5250.64168.21
34″ NPS8508643412.70.5266.61178.89
36″ NPS9009143612.70.5282.27189.57

Schedule 40

Drainage and low-pressure water flow applications call for Schedule 40. They can absorb temperatures of up to 140 degrees Fahrenheit, while pipe lengths are available in 10 inches and 20 inches portions. Schedule 40 comes with either a plain or a belled end and does not require installation.

Here’s the appropriate chart.

Nominal size [inches]Outside diameter [mm]Outside diameter [inches]Wall thickness [mm]Wall thickness [inches]Weight [kg/m]Weight [lb/ft]
1/8″ NPS610.30.411.730.0680.370.24
1/4″ NPS813.70.542.240.0880.630.42
3/8″ NPS1017.10.682.310.0910.840.57
1/2″ NPS1521.30.842.770.1091.270.85
3/4″ NPS2026.71.052.870.1131.691.13
1″ NPS2533.41.323.380.1332.51.68
1 1/4″ NPS3242.21.663.560.143.392.27
1 1/2″ NPS4048.31.93.680.1454.052.72
2″ NPS5060.32.3753.910.1545.443.65
2 1/2″ NPS65732.8755.160.2038.635.79
3″ NPS8088.93.55.490.21611.297.58
3 1/2″ NPS90101.645.740.22613.579.11
4″ NPS100114.34.56.020.23716.0710.79
5″ NPS125141.35.5636.550.25821.7714.62
6″ NPS150168.36.6257.110.2828.2618.97
8″ NPS200219.18.6258.180.32242.5528.55
10″ NPS25027310.759.270.36560.3140.48
12″ NPS300323.812.7510.310.40679.7353.52
14″ NPS350355.61411.130.43794.5554.57
16″ NPS400406.41612.70.5123.382.77
18″ NPS4504571814.270.562155.8104.67
20″ NPS5005082015.090.594183.42123.11
24″ NPS6006102417.480.688255.41171.29
32″ NPS8008133217.480.688342.91230.08

Schedule 80

This is the ultimate level of strength. You may find them beneath parking lots and other high-traffic locations. It’s typically utilized in pump stations when you need a bit more strength than Schedule 40 PVC. Because it has a similar outer diameter as Schedule 40 PVC, you may use it with all Schedule 80 and 40 fittings.

Here’s the appropriate chart.

Nominal size [inches]Outside diameter [mm]Outside diameter [inches]Wall thickness [mm]Wall thickness [inches]Weight [kg/m]Weight [lb/ft]
1/8″ NPS610.30.412.410.0950.470.31
1/4″ NPS813.70.543.020.1190.80.54
3/8″ NPS1017.10.683.20.1261.10.74
1/2″ NPS1521.30.843.730.1471.621.09
3/4″ NPS2026.71.053.910.1542.21.47
1″ NPS2533.41.324.550.1793.242.17
1 1/4″ NPS3242.21.664.850.1914.473
1 1/2″ NPS4048.31.95.080.25.413.63
2″ NPS5060.32.3755.540.2187.485.02
2 1/2″ NPS65732.8757.010.27611.417.66
3″ NPS8088.93.57.620.315.2710.25
3 1/2″ NPS90101.648.080.31818.6312.5
4″ NPS100114.34.58.560.33722.3214.98
5″ NPS125141.35.5639.530.37530.9720.78
6″ NPS150168.36.62510.970.43242.5628.57
8″ NPS200219.18.62512.70.564.6443.39
10″ NPS25027310.7515.090.59496.0164.43
12″ NPS300323.812.7517.480.688132.0888.63
14″ NPS350355.61419.050.75158.1106.13
16″ NPS400406.41621.440.844203.53136.61
18″ NPS4504571823.830.938254.55170.92
20″ NPS5005082026.191.031311.17208.87
24″ NPS6006102430.961.125442.08296.58

Schedule 120

Its outer diameter can be as much as 24 inches. Tubes in this category have wall thicknesses ranging from 11.13mm to 46.02mm. Different grades of carbon steel have varying pressure capabilities for the same tubing size. Many use them in applications ranging from low to high pressure. In most sectors, workers use them for gas and liquid transportation.

Carbon steels may be robust, but they are not recommended for corrosive applications. Its durability makes them suitable for use in the construction and automotive industries.

Here’s the appropriate chart.

Nominal size [inches]Outside diameter [mm]Outside diameter [inches]Wall thickness [mm]Wall thickness [inches]Weight [kg/m]Weight [lb/ft]
4″ NPS100114.34.511.130.43828.3219
5″ NPS125141.35.56312.70.540.2827.04
6″ NPS150168.36.62514.270.56254.236.39
8″ NPS200219.18.62518.260.71990.4460.71
10″ NPS25027310.7521.440.844133.0689.29
12″ NPS300323.812.7525.41186.97125.49
14″ NPS350355.61427.791.094224.65150.79
16″ NPS400406.41630.961.219286.64192.43
18″ NPS4504571834.931.375363.56244.14
20″ NPS5005082038.11.5441.49296.37
22″ NPS5505592241.281.625527.02353.61
24″ NPS6006102446.021.812640.03429.39

Schedule 40 vs. 80

Schedule 40 and 80 are the two most prevalent forms of this pipe. Schedule 40 PVC is often white, while 80 is typically dark gray and available in other colors. Their design is the most significant distinction. The wall thickness of the Schedule 80 pipe is thicker. As a result, the tube is more stagnant and robust and can withstand more considerable pressure.

Schedule 40 is perhaps the most familiar to you. It’s the white pipe you see surrounding buildings for sewage, and it’s available at local hardware stores. This pipe best serves drainage and irrigation. They’re also great for other cold-water systems. Schedule 40 PVC is sturdy and stiff, which makes it resistant to pressure.

How to Measure PVC Pipe (4 Step Guide)

You should use the nominal scale to compute its measurements. Of course, you will need to base their measurements on their hand structures rather than accurate scale measurements. I will include a handy guide below to help you figure out what size you’ll need.

To further explain it, you will see a detailed guide below on how to measure them:

Time needed: 5 minutes.

How to measure PVC pipe

  1. Place the pipe on a hard surface with one end facing you.

  2. Measure the distance between the right and left exterior edges of your pipe with a tape measure or ruler.

    While measuring, keep your ruler as level as possible.

  3. Now, pair “Your Measurement” with “Average OD.”

  4. Choose your pipes depending on the Average OD of your measurements.

    Remember that these measurements are for the exterior border, not the inside. Your inner measurements may vary depending on the pipe schedule you require.

What is OD?

pvc pipe

They have a somewhat greater outer diameter than their name suggests. They also employ a nominal system. They are compatible parts that have identical designations. All 1-inch pipes will fit in 1-inch fittings, and so on. The dimensions in its names represent the nominal sizes, not necessarily the length. This is a challenging notion to grasp, but the goal of the nominal system is to make finding the correct parts easier.

OD Chart

Your MeasurementAverage Outer Diameter (OD)
Diameter, in inchesSize Translation, in inches
0.84 ½
1.05 ¾
1.315 1
1.66 1 ¼
1.9 1 ½
2.5 2”
3.5 3
4 3 ½
4.5 4
5.563 5
6.625 6
8.625 8”
10.75 10
Works for Schedule 40 and 80 pipes

What to Consider

If you are concerned about which one should you use, here is a detailed comparison further below:

construction worker working on pipes

Thickness

The crucial physical difference between schedule 40 and 80 is its wall thickness. With a significant increase in ratings, the material thickness of pipes and fittings will be increased. For the specified size, Schedule 40 will have thinner walls. This entails less material, leading to a weaker result. It could impair project acceptability if the plumbing’s integrity is questioned for the intended usage. Thicker tubes will have more vital structural and chemical endurance and rigidity than those with a higher schedule. They’re better at handling strain and pressure resistance.

pvc pipes

Pressure

Plumbing’s highest pounds per square inch (psi) pressure rating is governed by how they schedule it. For better pressure handling, tubing with higher numbers is suitable for you. The increased material thickness indicated by the tube is a direct outcome of their service tolerance for excess water pressure. In general, Schedule 80 is a safer and more durable option for pressurized liquid applications. If operational pressure ranges are recognized to be within the specified parameters, Schedule 40 may be a good fit.

NPS and Outer, Inner Diameter

The Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) dimensions for schedule 40 and 80 tubings will be the same for the same size. The NPS measurement is equivalent to their Outer Diameter (OD), which is the same for both types. The significance between schedules 40 and 80 is the Inner Diameter (ID) measurement. The extra material utilized in schedule 80 merely thickens the sidewalls on the interior of the piping. Schedule 80 has a smaller inner diameter, which causes a little limitation in fluid flow through the tube.

PVC pipe being cut

Cost

Plumbing with a Schedule 80 rating has a higher purchase price than plumbing parts with a 40 rating. The additional material that provides for the thicker sidewall of schedule 80 and the incorporated colorant contributes to its higher cost.

Color

Tubes in schedules 40 and 80 are frequently colored differently to distinguish them. Schedule 40 plumbing is usually a natural white with no color additions, whereas Schedule 80 plumbing is usually a colored grey. It’s worth noting that there are often exceptions to the rule, and certain manufacturers may not adhere to the standard color scheme. While color can help distinguish between Schedule 40 and 80 piping, always double-check by looking at the detailed information printed on the tubing sides.

Installation

two pvc pipes

Schedule 40 or 80 piping constructed of the same material is installed in the same way. According to ASTM standards, outside diameters shall be equal across pipe schedules with equivalent NPS. This feature supports tubing of varying scheduling to joining them using standard fittings and joining methods for that piping content.

plumber working on pipe

Application and Use

Schedule 80 plumbing is stronger and more resistant than its 40 counterparts because of its thicker wall thickness. Use more significant pipes for the components in plumbing applications. They should be suitable for elevated pressure stress and mechanical stresses.

This isn’t to assume that schedule 80 is ideal because an application will handle chemicals or liquids under pressure. Plumbing applications are pretty precise, especially those involving chemicals. Many people base their optimal choice on an educated assessment, whether 40 or 80. It considers all the structure’s intended usage characteristics. Schedule 40 plumbing over 80 plumbing can save both piping material and associated expenditures if Schedule 40 is acceptable for the operational parameters of the scenario.

FAQ

What are standard PVC pipe sizes?

It comes in a variety of sizes, as you might anticipate. 1 1/2 inches, 2 inches, 3 inches, and 4 inches are the most popular diameters used in the home. You should use the one 1/2-inch dimension to collect water from a bathroom vanity or a bathtub.

Is PVC pipe measured by ID or OD?

Professionals measure pipes in outer diameter. It will be if you measure the outer diameter (OD) of tubing in inches or fractions of an inch. However, the nominal pipe size or inside diameter (ID) is the most common measure of pipe. Even though it is related to the exterior diameter, it is vastly different.

What is the outside diameter of a 1.5 PVC pipe?

1.5 inches, schedule 40 has a nominal inside diameter of 1.5 inches and an outside diameter (OD) of 1-7/8 inches. Thus, the socket for 1.5 inches fittings is approximately 1-7/8 inches in diameter.

Is plumbing pipe OD or ID?

I highly recommend using the pipe’s ID (Inside Diameter) to identify it, and it is known as a “nominal” size. It implies “in name only.” This complicates everything as most beginners try to order parts using the OD (Outer Diameter).